Bibliography and Resources Organized by Conference Theme


Alon-Beck, Anat, The Law of Social Entrepreneurship - Creating Shared Value Through the Lens of Sandra Day O’Connor’s iCivics, 20 U. Penn. J. Bus. L. (forthcoming). Available at:

Better Utilization of Investments Leading to Development Act of 2018 or the BUILD Act of 2018, S. 2463,  and H.R. 5105,

Economic Innovation Group, Opportunity Zones. Available at:

Economic Innovation Group, Opportunity Zones Fact Sheet. Available at:

The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Societal impact companies have better legal and financial support (February 1, 2018). Available at:

Tyler, John E. III, Essential Policy and Practice Considerations for Facilitating Social Enterprise: Commitment, Connections, Harm, and Accountability in: J. Yockey & B. Means, eds., The Cambridge Handbook of Social Enterprise Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)   

Tankersley, Jim, Tucked Into the Tax Bill, a Plan to Help Distressed America, New York Times (January 29. 2018). Available at:

Heminway, Joan MacLeod, Corporate Purpose and Litigation Risk in Publicly Held U.S. Benefit Corporations, 40 (2) Seattle University Law Review 611, 2017

Union Luxembourgeoise de l’Economie Sociale et Solidaire avec le soutien du Ministère du Travail, de l’Emploi, et de l’Economie sociale et solidaire, Sociétés d’impact societal et associations sans but lucrative: Tableau comparative (June 2017). (pdf available)

Legal and Exempt Organization Tax Aspects of Impact Investing, Nonprofit Governance Impact Investing: Key Issues for EOs, hosted by Georgetown University Law Center, Independent Sector, and Council on Foundations, Josh Mintz and John Tyler (April 26, 2017). Available at:

Varga, Eva & Hayday, Malcolm, for RAND Europe/Ecorys, commissioned by the European Commission, A Recipe Book for Social Finance: A practical guide on designing and implementing initiatives to develop social finance instruments and markets (January 2016). (pdf available)

U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation, Portfolio for Impact (PI). Available at:

U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation, The OPIC Blog: Video Highlights from the 2016 OPIC Impact Awards (August 24, 2016). Available at:   

U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation, Innovative Financial Intermediaries Program (IFIP). Available at:

Plerhoples, Alicia E., Social Enterprise as Commitment: A Roadmap, 48 Wash. U. J. L. & Pol’y 89, 95 (2015)

Fischer, Michael S., IRS Removes a Tax Barrier to Impact Investing for Foundations, Think Advisor (September 21, 2015). Available at:

European Social Enterprise Law Association, Social Enterprise in Europe Developing Legal Systems which Support Social Enterprise Growth (May 10, 2015). Available at:

Bernstein, Jared & Hassett, Kevin A., American Enterprise Institute, Economic Innovation Group, Unlocking Private Capital to Facilitate Economic Growth in Distressed Areas (April 2015). Available at:

DLA Piper/New Perimeter, Microfinance CEO Working Group, Partnership for Responsible Financial Inclusion, Client Protection Principles: Model Law and Commentary for Financial Consumer Protection (April 2015). Available at:

Brakman Reiser, Dana, Regulating Social Enterprise, 14 UC Davis Business Law Journal 231 (2014)

Mayer, Lloyd Hitoshi & Ganahl, Joseph R., Taxing Social Enterprise, 66 Stanford L. Rev. 387 (2014). Available at:

Zahra, Shaker A., et al., A Typology of Social Entrepreneurs: Motives, Search Processes and Ethical Challenges, 24 (5) J. Bus. Venturing 519 (2009)

Austin, James, et al., Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both? 30 (1) Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 1 (2006)

Dees, Gregory J., “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship’” (1998, reformatted and revised 2001). Available at:

      Section 231 of the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended; 22 U.S.C. §2191 et seq.


Saldinger, Adva, Blended Finance Task Force launches action plan, calls on MDBs to step up leadership (April 20, 2018). Available at:

Savoy, Conor M. & Milner, Aaron N., Blended Finance and Aligning Private Investment with Global Development: Two Sides of the Same Coin, A Report of the Center for Strategic and International Studies Project on Prosperity and Development and the Royal Embassy of Denmark (March 2018). Available at:

Social Impact Partnerships to Pay for Results Act (SIPPRA) (Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018). Available at:

Blended Finance Taskforce, Better Finance Better World, Consultation Paper of the Blended Finance Task Force (January 2018). Available at:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD DAC Blended Finance Principles for Unlocking Commercial Finance for the Sustainable Development Goals (January 2018). Available at:

Emerging Markets Private Equity Association (EMPEA), Annual Report 2017. Available at:

International Finance Corporation, et al., DFI Working Group on Blended Concessional Finance for Private Sector Projects Summary Report (October 2017). Available at:

Gustafsson-Wright, Emily & Boggild-Jones, Izzy, et al., Impact Bonds in Developing Countries: Early Learnings from the Field (Brookings, September 2017). Available at:

Blended Financial Taskforce, The State of Blended Finance Working Paper (July 2017). Available at:

Cobb Curran, Amy, Inroads to Innovation: State Adoption of Pay for Success Legislation (April 2017). Available at:

Schiff, Hannah & Dithrich, Hannah, Scaling the Use of Guarantees in U.S. Community Investing (GIIN) (April 25, 2017). Available at:

Inter-American Development Bank & Inter-American Investment Corporation, Comparative Study of Equity Investing in Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE) (March 2017). Available at:

Guidance on template contract for social impact bonds and payment by results (February 23, 2017). Available at

Savoy, Conor M., et al., Development Finance Institutions Come of Age: Policy Engagement, Impact, and New Directions (CSIS and ODI: October 2016). Available at:

Inter-American Investment Corporation, The Inter-American Investment Corporation’s Integrity Framework (July 27, 2016). Available at:

International Finance Corporation, Blending Public and Private Finance (April 2016). Available at:

Inter-American Development Bank, Annex I: List of Excluded Activities for NSG Operations (IDB Group List of Excluded Activities for Private Sector Operations). Available at:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development & World Economic Forum, A How-To Guide for Blended Finance: A practical guide for Development Finance and Philanthropic Funders to integrate Blended Finance best practices into their organizations (September 2015). Available at:

Clifford Chance and International Senior Lawyers Project in partnership with the GIIN, Impact Investing Private Equity Fund Industry: Legal Considerations (2015). Available at:

Gustafsson-Wright, Emily, et al., Global Economy and Development Program – Brookings, The Potential and Limitations of Impact Bonds: Lessons from the First Five Years of Experience Worldwide (July 2015). Available at:

Aspen Network of Development Entrepreneurs (ANDE), LGT Impact Ventures, EQOM Partners and University of St. Gallen Hub São Paulo, Mapping the Impact Investing Sector in Brazil (May 2014). Available at:

Barajas, Adriana, et al., Public Policy and International Affairs Fellowship, Princeton University, Social Impact Bonds: A New Tool for Social Financing (2014). Available at:

Institutional Limited Partners Association, Private Equity Principles (January 2011). Available at:

Blended Finance Taskforce, Working Papers. Available at:

Inter-American Development Bank, Transparency: Prohibited Practices at the IDB Group. Available at:,2704.html

Inter-American Development Bank, Integrity and Accountability at the IDB. Available at:

Inter-American Development Bank, IDB Sector Policies and Sector Framework Document. Available at:,6194.html

Inter-American Development Bank, IDB Access to Information Policy. Available at:

Inter-American Investment Corporation, Integrity in IIC Projects. Available at:


The George Washington Law/Ashoka: Legal Audit Checklist: For Social Entrepreneurs Doing Business in the United States. Available at:

Get Purpose website. Available at:

NYU Law: Social Enterprise Law Tracker. Available at:

Heminway, Joan MacLeod, Let’s Not Give Up on Traditional For-Profit Corporations for Sustainable Social Enterprise, UMKC L. Rev. (forthcoming 2018)  

Winston, Emily, Benefit Corporations and the Separation of Benefit and Control, Cardozo L. Rev. (forthcoming 2018)

Thai, Alice; Suh, Margaret; and Jones, Riley, (under the supervision of Flynn Coleman), Mapping the State of Social Enterprise and the Law (NYU Law, May 2018). Available at:

Brest, Paul, et al., How Investors Can (and Can’t) Create Social Value (April 11, 2018). Available at: ECGI:

Brewer, Cassady V., Using a Taxable Nonprofit Corporation for Social Enterprise, in Cambridge Handbook on Social Enterprise (J. Yockey and B. Means, eds.) (2018)

Brakman Reiser, Dana & Dean, Steven A., The Social Enterprise Life Cycle, in Cambridge Handbook on Social Enterprise (J. Yockey and B. Means, eds.) (2018)

REDF, Mergers and Acquisitions: Key considerations for social enterprises, REDF Workshop (2018). Available at:

Fletcher, Luke, The Future of the Corporation (September 27, 2017). Available at:

Motter, Nicole, There Are Actually 6 Types of Social Enterprise (August 29, 2017). Available at:

Motter, Nicole, Program Related Investments as the Venture Capital of Philanthropy: How a PRI Intermediary Can Help Get You in the Game, Family Foundation Advisor (July/August 2017).

Zecha, Alden, What the Unilever Seventh Generation Acquisition Means for Social Ventures, Duke FUQUA School of Business (October 6, 2016). Available at:

Ball, Alina S., Social Enterprise Governance, 18 U. PA. J. BUS. L. 919, 942 (2016)

European Social Enterprise Law Association, Social Enterprise in Europe Developing Legal Systems which Support Social Enterprise Growth (May 10, 2015). Available at

Murray, J. Haskell, Corporate Forms of Social Enterprise: Comparing the State Statutes (January 15, 2015). Available at: or

Social Investment Research Council, Marketing social investments - an outline of the UK financial promotion regime (June 18, 2014). Available at:

Thomson Reuters Foundation and Morrison & Foerster, et al., Which Legal Structure is Right for My Social Enterprise? A Guide to Establishing a Social Enterprise in the United States (May 2013). Available at:

Motter, Nicole, Why Program-Related Investments Are Not Risky Business (February 21, 2013). Available at:

Brakman Reiser, Dana, The Next Big Thing: Flexible-Purpose Corporations (October 24, 2012). Business Law Review, 2012

Page, Antony & Katz, Robert A., The Truth About Ben and Jerry’s, Stanford Social Innovation Review (Fall 2012). Available at:

Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship, The Governance of Social Enterprises: Managing Your Organization for Success (June 2012). Available at:

Brakman Reiser, Dana, Benefit Corporations—A Sustainable Form of Organization? (September 2012). 46 Wake Forest L. Rev. 591, 2011

Bromberger, Allen R., A New Type of Hybrid, Stanford Social Innovation Review 48-53 (Spring 2011). Available at:

Graham, Pauline, Why more social enterprises should consider corporate acquisition, The Guardian (August 2, 2011). Available at:

Brakman Reiser, Dana, Governing and Financing Blended Enterprise (February 23, 2010). Chicago-Kent Law Review

13(d) Filing – Acquisition Agreement with Schedule 6.14 – Ben & Jerry’s Social Mission Priorities. Available at:


den Holder, Greetje, What Can the Time’s Up Movement Do For the Female Entrepreneur? (April 27, 2018). Available at:

Geczy, Christopher & Jeffers, Jessica, et al., Contracts with Benefits: The Implementation of Impact Investing (April 9, 2018). Available at:

Gilbert, Jay Coen, B Labs, How to Invest and Exit with Impact and Return (April 5, 2018). Available at:

The World Bank, “Women, Business and the Law 2018” (World Bank Open Knowledge Repository, March 29, 2018). Available at:

Schiff, Hannah & Dithrich, Hannah, The Global Impact Investing Network, Lasting Impact: The Need for Responsible Exits (January 11, 2018). Available at:

Reisman, Jane & Millet, Haley, Putting “Impact” at the Center of Impact Investing: A Case Study of Toniic’s T100 Project, The Rockefeller Foundation (January 2018). Available at:

Klein, Katherine J., et al., Can Investing in Public Equities Improve the Lives of Women? (October 26, 2017). Available at:

Biegel, Suzanne, et al., Tracking Venture Capital with a Gender Lens (October 2017). Available at:

U.S. Trust Bank of America Private Wealth Management, Through A Gender Lens: Investing for Impact and Opportunity (April 2017). Available at:

Burand, Deborah, Contracting for Impact: Embedding Social and Environmental Impact Goals into Loan Agreements, 13 N.Y.U. J.L. & Bus. 775 (2017). Available at:

Harvard Law School, “Diversity in Investing” (Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation, March 16, 2017). Available at:

Geczy, Christopher & Jeffers, Jessica, et al., In Pursuit of Good & Gold: Data Observations of Employee Ownership & Impact Investment (2017), Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017); Georgia State University College of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-10. Available at:

Thomson Reuters Foundation and Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe, et al., Balancing Purpose and Profit: Legal Mechanisms to Lock In Social Missions for “Profit with Purpose” Businesses Across the G8 - Addendum: Review of Legal and Policy Developments since 2014 (June 2016). Available at:

Anderson, Joy & Miles, Katherine, Criterion Institute with support from Wallace Global Fund, The State of the Field of Gender Lens Investing: A Review and A Road Map (October 1, 2015). Available at:

Glinski, Allison M. & Soria, Lizzette, et al., Women and Social Enterprises: How Gender Integration Can Boost Entrepreneurial Solutions to Poverty (ACUMEN, 2015). Available at:

Burand, Deborah, Resolving Impact Investment Disputes: When Doing Good Goes Bad, 48 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol’y 55 (2015). Available at:

Orrick, UnLtd, Thomson Reuters Foundation, Balancing Profit and Purpose: Legal mechanisms to lock in social mission for “profit with purpose” businesses across the G8, (Thomas Reuters Foundation [Resources], December 2014). Available at:

Aspen Network of Development Entrepreneurs (ANDE), Metrics to Align Mission with Financial Performance: Tips from Practitioners (2014). (A Synthesis of Discussion at 2014 ANDE Metrics Conference). Available at:

IAMFI & Morgan Stanley, Charting the Course: Best Practices and Tools for Voluntary Debt Restructurings in Microfinance (2011). Available at:


U.S. Department of Labor, Field Assistance Bulletin No. 2018-01, Interpretive Bulletins 2016-01 and 2015-01 re: ETI and ERISA Plans (April 23, 2018). Available at:

Faloon, Michael & Laipple, Alex, ESG and Impact Investing: Do you know the difference? Neighborly Insights (September 19, 2017). Available at:

Insight at Pacific Community Ventures, The Pursuit of Financial Return and Societal Benefit: An Examination of Pension Fund Economically Targeted Investments (June 2017). Available at:

Walker, Darren, Unleashing the power of endowments: The next great challenge for philanthropy, Ford Foundation, Equals Change Blog (April 5, 2017). Available at:

Ellsworth, Peter & Spalding, Kirsten Snow, Ceres, The 21st Century Investor: CERES Blueprint for Sustainable Investing (June 2016). Available at:

Groom Law Group and Morgan Lewis & Bockius, Principles for Responsible Investment, Addressing ESG Factors under ERISA: Two Legal Perspectives (2016). Available at:

Godsall, Jonathan & Sanghvi, Aditya, How Impact Investing Can Reach The Mainstream, McKinsey & Company Insights (November 2015). Available at:

Sullivan, Rory, et al., United Nations Global Compact et al., Fiduciary Duty in the 21st Century (September 2015). Available at:

Rodin, Judith & Brandenburg, Margot, 7 Things We’ve Learned About Impact Investing in 7 Years, The Rockefeller Foundation (May 6, 2014). Available at:

Mintz, Joshua & Ziegler, Chelsey, Mission-Related Investing: Legal and Policy Issues to Consider Before Investing, MacArthur Foundation–Commentary (March 2013). Available at: