Library

European Union Research

This guide covers the Law Library’s EU depository collection of official documents and publications, plus related books, journals, case reporters, yearbooks, indexes, finding tools, databases, and websites. Note: It does not reflect any changes to the composition, functions, and documentation of the EU institutions that will take effect because of the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe.

IN A HURRY? Try the shorter Cite-Checker’s Guide: European Union.

FOR MORE DETAILS, choose a topic from this chart:

EU Official documents, etc. Related materials

EU law online
EU institutions and their documents
Treaties
Legislation/Official Journal
Legislation in preparation (proposed)
COM documents
Reports, green papers, white papers
Competition and mergers
European Court of Justice

Research guides
Finding books
Journal articles
Scholarly papers
News, background, and websites
Terminology
Statistics

EU LAW ONLINE

EUR-LEX
Note that html texts may lack graphics, tables, and lengthy annexes.

  • FREE, one-stop gateway to EU law
  • All official languages
  • Search by date, author, words, Celex number, type of document, etc.
  • Search across all types of documents, or within one type
  • Treaties
  • PDF Official Journal L, C and C-E Series back to 1/1/1998
  • To find pre-1998 legislation/Official Journal:
    > Official Journal > Access by year > other years, or
    > Simple Search > by publication reference > Official Journal reference, or
    > Use another search option such as > Simple Search > keywords, or > Legislation in force.
  • OJ Special Edition (secondary legislation in force on May 1, 2004, translated into the nine new official languages): Choose language and then Official Journal.
  • Legislation in Force by topic (Directory of Legislation in Force)
  • Legislative texts are accompanied by lists of relevant dates, Treaty articles, preparatory acts, acts affected, and cases.
  • Preparatory Acts (legislation in preparation, COM documents, etc.)
  • Consolidated texts (legislation with amendments) through the Directory of Legislation in Force
  • Case-law and opinions of Advocates General
  • Parliamentary questions
  • Documents of public interest (white papers, green papers, etc.)
  • Pre-Lex and OEIL for tracking legislation
  • Links to other EU document sources (Parliament, etc.)
  • About EU Law on EUR-LEX includes a brief introduction to the process and players of EU lawmaking, a glossary of EU terms and the ABCs of EU law for non-specialists.

WESTLAW and LexisNexis (passwords available to NYU Law School students and faculty only) have full-text documents from the Official Journal in html (which may lack tables, graphics and lengthy annexes).

Westlaw
Note: For a description of a particular database and how to us find and field searching, click on Scope (the letter "i" in the green circle) after you access the database.

  • Official Journal:
    OJ L Series is EU-LEG
    OJ C Series is EU-OJCSERIES
  • Legislation in preparation EU-ACTS
  • Case law EU-CS

LexisNexis
To see a list of the EU databases in LexisNexis, go to Look for a Source and choose > Legal (excluding US) > European Union. Click on "i" for scope and search examples.

 

EU INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR DOCUMENTS

  1. European Council
  2. Council of the European Union
  3. Parliament
  4. Commission
  5. Directorates-General and Services
  6. Economic and Social Committee
  7. Committee of the Regions
  8. Court of Justice
  9. Common Foreign and Security Policy
  10. Justice and Home Affairs

For quick links to the websites of the main institutions visit EUR-LEX, under "Practioner's Corner" click "The Institutions' Registers."

Registers of Documents: Commission, Parliament and Council

The two databases listed below track the status of proposed legislation and link to the full text of documents generated by the Council, Parliament, etc., during the legislative process. See also Legislation in Preparation.

European Council: A meeting of the European Council brings together the Heads of State or Government of the Member States of the European Union and the President of the European Commission. It should not be confused with the Council of the European Union (see below) or with the Council of Europe (which is a separate international organization). The decisions taken at the European Council meetings help to define the general political guidelines of the European Union. The Council Presidency Conclusions are made public at the closing of each European Council meeting and published at <ue.eu.int/presid/conclusions.htm> and in the June and December issues of the Bulletin of the European Union.

Council of the European Union: The Council is the legislative body (in co-decision with the Parliament on many issues). It also coordinates the economic policies, concludes external international agreements, holds budgetary power with the Parliament, takes decisions to define and implement the common foreign and security policy set by the European Council, and coordinates Member State activities and adopts measures in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. The Council is composed of one ministerial level representative from each Member State; the ministers vary depending upon the subject of the meeting.

The website includes:

  • Information to the Public
  • Documents
  • European Council
  • The Presidency
  • Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • Justice and Home Affairs
  • Future of the Union (2004 IGC)

Common Positions. According to the research guide Accessing European Union Information, a Common Position is the agreed Council text of legislation following the first reading by the Parliament under the cooperation and co-decision procedures. Published in:

Parliament

EUROPARL: Parliament members are directly elected by the citizens of Europe every five years. Under powers conferred by the Treaties, the Parliament shares legislative and budgetary power with the Council and exercises democratic supervision over the Commission.

  • Register of European Parliament documents
  • Debates in plenary sessions: through May 1999: Official Journal Annex
    Compact Shelves (NYUL KE-E5 2J67)
  • 1966-present: EUROPARL Plenary Sitting >Debates

    July 1999-present: cdrom Circulation KJE908 .O33

  • Minutes of plenary sessions and Texts [of Opinions] Adopted are published in the O.J. C Series, from one to three months after the session. Recent years are also in EUROPARL
  • Reports of the committees (summary of action, explanatory statement, draft opinion on legislative proposal) are contained in Series A of the Working or Session Documents of Parliament and might be cited as PE Doc A.... Since 1997 they are online only. The library has them as follows:
    1965-70 Documents de Seance (French) Compact Shelves KE-E5 2E76 D6 1972-89, Working Documents, Sessions Documents, Reports, misc. Compact Shelves KE-E5 2E76 D6a
    1978-86, 1996 Microfiche (misc. documents).
    For 1962-1997, the catalog of the Science, Industry and Business Library of the New York Public Library (search: "working documents" and "sessions documents") indicates that SIBL holds Series A documents for 1962-1997.
    July 1994-present: EUROPARL
  • Parliamentary Questions to the Commission and the Council
    through 1999: O.J. C Series
    EUROPARL
  • EUR-LEX - Parliamentary Questions
    WESTLAW EU-QUESTIONS
    LexisNexis EURCOM:PARLQ
  • Overview of the Parliament
  • OEIL Legislative Dossiers—status of legislative proposals (1994-) with citations to related documents.

Commission of the European Communities (Britannica): Under powers conferred by the Treaties, the Commission initiates legislative proposals, implements legislation and the budget and other programs adopted by the Council and the Parliament, ensures that Community law is properly implemented, represents the EU on the world stage, and negotiates international agreements.

COM documents

Reports, Green Papers, White Papers

Commission Directorates-General and Services

The website of the relevant D-G or service may have citations to, and possibly the texts of, legislation and related materials.

Economic and Social Committee

Committee of the Regions: Both websites have public registers of documents.

The opinions of these two committees are published periodically in the OJ C-E Series and they are available through EUR-LEX.

Court of Justice of the EU

See also: European Court of Justice

The Common Foreign and Security Policy
The legal instruments of the Common Foreign and Security Policy are guidelines set by the European Council, and decisions, joint actions and common positions adopted by the Council. These documents may be available in:

Also consult European Foreign Policy Bulletin, a comprehensive resource containing joint actions and common positions of the European Council, declarations and public statements of the European Council, and Parliament documents.

Justice and Home Affairs
The legal instruments of Justice and Home Affairs are guidelines set by the European Council; common positions, framework decisions (to be implemented by the Member States), decisions and implementing measures, resolutions, declarations, and conclusions adopted by the Council; and conventions proposed by the Council subject to ratification by the Member States. These documents may be available in:

 

RESEARCH GUIDES

Accessing European Union Information - Compiled by the Library, Press and Public Affairs Section, Delegation of the European Commission, Washington, D.C. The best source in English for details about the types of documents issued by the EU institutions and where they are published. (The NYU Law Library gratefully acknowledges Accessing European Union Information as the source of many of the details in this guide.)

Duncan Alford, "European Union Legal Materials: A Guide for Infrequent Users," 97 Law Library Journal 49 (2005).

European Union Law: An Integrated Guide to Electronic and Print Research By Marylin J. Raisch, University of Toronto Bora Laskin Law Library.

JURIST EU: EU Law Guides Mini-portals to the main online resources for specific European Union issues such as competition law and human rights.

List of other EU research guides Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law & Justice

 

TO FIND BOOKS AND EU PUBLICATIONS

  • Julius catalog of the Law Library
  • Bobcat The NYU Bobst Library supports the work of the NYU Center for European Studies.
  • Catalogs of other libraries
  • RLG Union Catalog (Research Libraries Group) and OCLC FirstSearch (Worldcat) provide one-stop searching of the catalogs of many research libraries.
  • ECLAS - The catalog of the European Commission Libraries lists books, articles (including the bibliography of articles formerly in SCAD), official documents and publications, and Internet resources. ECLAS also links to full-text where available.
  • Publications Portal - Links to EU publications catalogs and publications on the web. Search by subject or browse an alphabetical list of institutions and agencies.
  • EU Bookshop - This site contains an online catalog, ordering service and archive of EU publications. Some free publications are available for download.
  • Book reviews in EJIL European Journal of International Law
  • European Books Reviews - NYU Law School Hauser Global Global Law School Program and the Jean Monnet Center. European Books Reviews, along with Global Law Book Reviews, reviews books on EU law and integration as well as on other systems of regional integration, international trade law and global governance.
  • SourceOECD, the online publications portal of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, includes monographs, reports, selected periodicals, and the OECD statistical databases.

 

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

ERPA, the European Research Papers Archive <eiop.or.at/erpa/
A searchable archive of papers on European integration from the following:

  • Robert Schuman Centre and Academy of European Law, European Univ. Institute, Florence
  • Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies (MPIfG), Cologne
  • European Integration online Papers (EIoP), ECSA, Austria
  • Advanced Research on the Europeanisation of the Nation-State (ARENA), Oslo
  • Mannheim Center for European Social Research
  • Jean Monnet Working Papers, New York University School of Law
  • ESRC One Europe or Several? Working Papers
  • Queen's Papers on Europeanisation, Institute of European Studies, Queen's Univ. Belfast
  • ConWEB Papers on Constitutionalism and Governance beyond the State, Queen's University of Belfast & McGill University of Montreal

Walter Hallstein-Institute for European Constitutional Law, papers, etc.

AEI Archive of European Integration: University of Pittsburgh Library System. Archive of (1) independently produced research materials (working papers, policy papers, conference papers, articles, etc.) and (2) key official EU documents that record the development of EU policy, such as Green and White papers and COM documents, that are not readily available elsewhere on the internet.

 

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Note: Some of these tools provide the full text of the journal articles that they list and some do not. For the most comprehensive list of articles on your topic, use a combination of these tools because no single one covers all the journals on EU law.

  • LexisNexis
    short name for full-text law review files: LAWREV;ALLREV
  • WESTLAW
    full-text law reviews: JLR
    all texts and periodicals: TP-ALL
  • Hein-On-Line full-text images of many U.S. academic law journals and law reviews starting with volume 1.
  • Legal Journals Index: abstracts of over 430 English-language periodicals published in the UK and Europe or pertaining to EU law. WESTLAW LJI , 1986-. LJI is the electronic companion to European Legal Journals Index, which covered 85 English language sources on the law of the EC and European countries. The library has 1993-95 and 1997 only. Reserve KJC 3.7 E97x. It ceased in print in 1999.
  • Current Law Index Covers over 875 journals starting from December 1979-, from the United States, Canada, UK, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia.
    1980-2005 Bound Periodicals NYUL K9 C88
    LexisNexis LAWREV;LGLIND
    WESTLAW LRI
  • Index to Legal Periodicals, 1918-
    1981-present (select Legal Periodical Full Text)
    1918-1981 (select Legal Periodicals Retro)
    1786-1922 (select from drop-down menu I)
    Also available in WESTLAW (ILP), 1981-.
    In paper: 1926- Main Reading Room NYUL K9 I5.
  • Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals,1985-
    A multilingual index to articles and book reviews published worldwide and covering international (public and private), comparative, and municipal law of countries other than the United States, the U.K., Canada, and Australia. Also indexes legal essays, festschrifts, melanges, and congress reports.
    Also in paper, 1960- Golieb NYUL K9 I36.
  • EJIL European Journal of International Law - Full-text of earlier volumes is available online (Archive), along with one article and abstracts of other articles from the current issue. The website also offers searchable books reviews from EJIL (Archive), a discussion list, links to related websites, and a "Current Developments" section that reports on recent developments in international law fora.
  • Doctrinal (Index to French Legal Literature) An index of citations from journals in law and policy. Searching is in French only.
  • Public International Law: A Current Bibliography of Books and Articles. Compiled by the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law. Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975-
    Compact Shelves JX1226 P72
    Based upon evaluation of over 1400 journals, yearbook and festschriften. Also lists books newly acquired by the Max Planck Institute library. See the section on the EU.
  • ECLAS - The catalog of of the European Commission Libraries lists books, articles (including the bibliography of articles formerly in SCAD), official documents and publications, and Internet resources. ECLAS also links to full text where available.
  • Bibliografia juridica de la integracion europea=Juridisk bibliografi over den europeaiske integration=Legal Bibliography of European integration. Luxembourg: Oficina de Publicaciones Oficiales de las Comunidades Europeas.
    Compact Shelves KJE901 .B53x
  • Other indexes and full-text databases for journals are available through the law library Indexes & Databases page.

 

NEWS, BACKGROUND, AND WEBSITES

Use these sources to follow recent developments or to start research on an unfamiliar topic. In addition to a summary of the topic, you may also find citations and links to relevant laws, cases and other official documents. See also EU Institutions for the location of official documents in the law library and online.

Lists of websites:

Europe Daily Bulletin/Bulletin Quotidien Europe from Agence Europe. Archive of EU news developments. Periodic supplements provide statistics, book reviews and copies of important official documents. The current daily issues are at the Circulation Desk. Issues for 2001-2005 are in Bound Periodicals 2--call number D1050 .E935. A cdrom containing the full-text issues from 1995 forward (except the statistical supplements) is available at the Circulation Desk; it is searchable by words in title or text and by subjects.

LexisNexis. The NEWS library has an extensive collection of newspapers, including many non-U.S. papers. Log in to www.lexis.com. Click on the News
and Business tab. Click News. Under Country & Region choose European Union, then News.

Access World News through Global NewsBank: On the right side of Global NewsBank, click on Access World News. Next to the green search button, is a link to switch to an Advanced Search screen. Use the map to limit to Europe or a particular country.

World Trade Online >World Trade Online (click on "password required" and note the password before you access the database). A weekly report on major government and industry trade action in the U.S. and around the world. The online site also includes a searchable archive of Inside U.S. Trade, which the library also receives in paper (Reserve HF3000 .I57 latest year only); a collection of statements, reports and speeches; and special reports.

Press Room of the Commission

EU News

EIU Country Commerce Analysis of worldwide market trends and business strategies, and assessment and forecast of political, economic and business conditions in almost 200 countries.

European Union Law Reporter. Bicester, Oxfordshire: CCH International; Chicago: Commerce Clearing House, 1962-. Formerly Common Market Reporter. Use the detailed Topical Index in volume 4 to find commentary on policy, legislation, and case law, and citations to legislation and cases.
Reserve NYUL KE-E1 C63 C6

EUROPA offers quick access to:

  • All the News: links to EU News
  • Activities: Pick a sector of EU activity and find related websites, summaries, documents, and legal texts.
  • Institutions: links to websites of the Commission, Parliament, etc.
  • Documents: links to EUR-Lex and other document sources
  • Services: Eurostat, the directory of the EU, etc.

These tools are helpful for navigating EUROPA:

IDEA, the online interinstitutional directory

OEIL Legislative Observatory - Monitors the decision-making activity through these services:

  • Activities of the Institutions/Forecasts and Results
  • Subjects of Current Interest
  • Legislative Dossiers--status of legislative proposals with citations to related documents.

PreLex: Status of legislative proposals with citations to related documents.

SCAD Plus: Summaries of the Union's Legislation

Bulletin of the European Union (formerly Bulletin of the European Communities) is useful for tracking the legislative process and gathering citations to documents, but it is slow to be published.

  • 1996-
  • Search engine, plus links to the OJ and the COM documents.
  • 1994- LC B1V (unbound on Reserve) HC241.2 .A212x
  • 1975-93 Bulletin of the European Communities Compact Shelves NYUL KE-E7 1C65 B7

General Report on the Activities of the European Union, 1995-. Annual Commission report to Parliament.

  • 1997-
  • 1995- LC-B1V (unbound on Reserve) HC241.2 .A17
  • 1968-94 General Report on the Activities of the European Community, Compact Shelves NYUL KE-E7 1C65 G3
  • In recent years, the report has included a status table for legislative proposals.

Delegation of the European Commission, Washington, D.C.

  • EU Law and Policy Overviews
  • EU Research Tools >"Accessing European Union Information," a research guide
  • A to Z Index of EU Websites

CORDIS Community Research & Development Information Service

Dialogue with Citizens
Factsheets and guides about rights of residence, education, employment, social security, and consumer interests.

Dialogue with Business
Policy and practical information on public procurement, intellectual property, technical harmonization, the Internal Market rules, etc.

TED Tenders Electronic Daily - Supplement to the Official Journal

EU Information Society Website
Commission DG Information Society and other EU institutions interested in the Information Society

Europol
Established by the Maastricht Treaty in order to improve cooperation of Member States in fighting international organized crime by facilitating the exchange of information and providing analysis and technical support.

EU Depository Libraries and Academic Resources

 

TERMINOLOGY

EuroDicAutom: European Terminology Database
Useful for technical and specialized terms related to EU fields of action and policy. Supplies terms in the eleven official languages plus Latin.

Eurovoc: the multilingual thesaurus - used for indexing the documentation of the EU institutions

 

STATISTICS

Eurostat: FREE statistics from the official EU statistical service.

Eurostat Electronic Library (CDROM). Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2001-. An off-line version of some of the publications from the Eurostat web site.
Circulation HA1107 .A15

Eudorstat (CDROM). A collection of statistical publications on various themes such as economic and finance or population and social conditions.
Circulation HA37 .E93 E97

Market Access Database
Sectoral and Trade Barriers Database, Statistical Tradeflow Database, etc. Country and product specific data from the Directorate-General on Trade.

 

TREATIES

are the primary law. They provide the legal bases of EU policies, legislation, institutions, and processes.

The founding treaties, accession treaties, consolidated texts, drafts, and other treaties, plus the Constitution for Europe, are available online at EUR-LEX.

  1. Official citations
  2. Consolidated versions
  3. Other places to find the treaties
  4. Accession treaties
  5. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU
  6. External treaties
  7. Constitutional reform and Intergovernmental Conferences

Official citations As a general rule, the basic Treaties are published in the Official Journal, C Series. Regarding the renumbering of Treaties, see the notes of the European Court of Justice on citation (click on Information) and also 1997 O.J. (C 340) 85.

• ESCS or Paris Treaty: Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, 18 April 1951, 261 U.N.T.S. 140. Expired 23 July 2002.

• EEC or Treaty of Rome: Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, 25 March 1957, 298 U.N.T.S. 3.

• EAEC or EURATOM Treaty: Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, 25 March 1957, 298 U.N.T.S. 167.

• Merger Treaty: Treaty Establishing a Single Council and a Single Commission of the European Communities, 8 April 1965, 1967 J.O. 152/1 (in French).

• SEA: Single European Act, 17 February 1986, 1987 O.J. (L 169) 1, 25 I.L.M. 506 (an act modifying the basic treaties).

• TEU or Maastricht Treaty: Treaty on European Union (EU), 7 February 1992, 1992 O.J. (C 191) 1, 31 I.L.M. 253.

Treaty of Amsterdam, 2 October 1997, 1997 O.J.
(C 340) 1, 37 I.L.M. 56. Explanatory material, text and information on ratification.

• Treaty of Nice amending the TEU, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, 26 February 2001, O.J. (C 80) 1. Entered into force 1 February 2003. Text, ratification table, explanation, archive of ICG 2000 documents.

Draft Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe, Brussels, 18 July 2003, adopted by consensus by the European Convention on 13 June and 10 July 2003. 2003 O.J. (C169).

Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe
Rome, October 29, 2004, O.J. (C 310) 1, December 16, 2004. The website includes the full text, plus information about the treaty and the status of ratification and referendum. According to Art. IV-447, the Treaty will enter into force on November 1, 2006, provided all instruments of ratification have been deposited, or if not, then on the first day of the second month following the deposit of the instrument of ratification by the last signatory State to deposit its ratification.

Consolidated versions of the Treaties are unofficial publications intended to show the earlier Treaties as amended by later Treaties.

  • Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on European Union and of the Treaty Establishing the European Community [incorporating amendments made by the Treaty of Athens], 2006 O.J. (C-E).
    Available on EUR-LEX.
  • Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on European Union and of the Treaty Establishing the European Community [incorporating changes made by the Treaty of Nice], 2002 O.J. (C325).
  • Consolidated versions incorporating the changes made by the Treaty of Amsterdam are available as follows:
    • Treaty on European Union, 1997 O.J. (C 340) 145-172.
    • Treaty Establishing the European Community, 2002 O.J. (C 325).
    • Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community/European Union. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1997.
    • Reserve KJE4443.31957 .A2x 1999
  • EUR-LEX

Other places to find the Treaties

The EC also publishes hardbound collections of the Treaties:

  • European Union : Selected Instruments Taken from the Treaties. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999-.
    Reserve KJE444.23 .E8735 1999
  • European Union: Selected Instruments Taken from the Treaties. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1995. Book II is Documents Concerning the Accession of the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden to the European Union.
    Reserve KJE4442.3 .E8735 1995

Encyclopedia of European Union Law. Constitutional Texts. Ed. Neville March Hunnings. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1996-. Looseleaf.
Reserve KJE918 .E56x

The Constitutional Texts volume above was previously Volume B, European Community Treaties, of Encyclopedia of European Community Law (K.R. Simmonds. London: Sweet & Maxwell; Edinburgh: Green; [New York]: Bender, [1973-1993]), which could be useful for older texts and the history of the treaties.
Reserve NYUL KE-E4 7E53

Volume 4, European Union Law Reporter. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2000-. Bicester, Oxfordshire: CCH International; Chicago: Commerce Clearing House, 1997-2000. Formerly Common Market Reporter, 1962-97.
Reserve NYUL KE-E1 C63 C6

European Union Law Guide. Compiled and edited by Philip Raworth. New York: Oceana Publications, 1994-. Multivolume looseleaf.
Reserve KJE947 .E89x

WESTLAW: EU-TREATIES

LexisNexis: EUROPE;TREATY

Accession treaties admit new countries to the EU and are generally published with related documents.

EUR-LEX - lists the accession treaties and provides the citation to the OJ and a link to the full text.

See also Ratificacion del tratado de la Union Europea: trabajos preparatorios=Ratificering af traktaten om den Europaeiske Union: forberedende arbejde=Ratification of the Treaty on European Union: preparations. Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones Oficiales de las Comunidades Europeas, 1996.
Compact Shelves KJE4443 .A12x 1996

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, proclaimed by the Commission, 7 December 2000. Proclamation and text, 2000 O.J. (C 364) 1. Council website on the Charter (PDF) / The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Fundamental Rights Parliament website on the Charter
Part II of the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe incorporates the Charter into the new Constitution.

External treaties between the EU and non-EU nations, are published in the Official Journal L Series.


Constitutional Reform The European Convention on the future development of the EU, which convened in 2002, consists of a period of public input, followed by analysis and proposals in preparation for the next Intergovernmental Conference.

Intergovernmental Conferences
A to Z Index of EU Websites - Delegation of the EU in the U.S. To locate websites and document collections for IGCs, search under "I" for IGC.

 

LEGISLATION

  1. Types
  2. Official Journal (O.J.)
  3. Where to find the O.J.
  4. Finding legislation by number, e.g., Dir. 128/96
  5. Finding legislation by topic
  6. National implementing measures for directives
  7. Consolidated legislation

Types of Legislation For a description of the process and players and of the different legislative procedures, see EUR-LEX.

  • Regulations are directly and automatically binding and applicable throughout the Member States. Published in the O.J. L Series,
    e.g., Reg. 128/96, 1996 O.J. (L 20) 19 indicates Reg. 128 of 1996 published in the 1996 O.J. L Series, issue no. 20, at p. 19.
  • Directives are binding as to the result to be achieved but each Member State chooses the form and method for national implementation of the directive. Published in the O.J. L Series,
    e.g., Council Directive 91/250/EEC, 1991 O.J. (L 122) 42 indicates directive 250 of 1991 published in the 1991 O.J. L Series, issue no. 122, at p.42.
  • Decisions are issued by the Council or the Commission and bind only the Member State(s) or natural or legal person(s) to whom they are addressed. Published in the O.J. L Series, e.g., Commission Decision 2001/1/EC of 15 February 2000 on the state aid..., 2001 O.J. (L 1) 10.
  • Recommendations, Resolutions and Opinions are not binding.
    Published in the O.J. C Series, e.g., Council Resolution of 16 November 2000 on a European space strategy, 2000 O.J. (C 371) 2.

OFFICIAL JOURNAL Legislative acts and non-binding acts are collected and published in the Official Journal of the European Union (O.J.) Prior to February 1, 2003, the title was the Official Journal of the European Communities. The O.J. is a chronological publication issued every working day in all official languages of the EU. Page numbering starts over with each daily issue. The O.J. is published in the following parts:

L Series: Legislation (regulations, directives and other binding acts)
Citation: 2001 O.J. (L1) 10 [2001 O.J. L Series, issue no. 1, at p. 10].

C Series: Information and Notices
Citation: 2000 O.J. (C371) 2 [2000 O.J. C Series, issue no. 371, at p. 2].

The C Series has contained, and with two exceptions* still contains, the following types of documents. See EU Institutions for other print and online sources of official documents and publications.

  • *Commission legislative proposals (but without the explanatory memo that is included in the COM document version) were published in the O.J. C Series until June 1999. After June 1999 legislative proposals are in the OJ C-E Series. Also published separately as COM documents.
    Also try WESTLAW EU-ACTS.
  • *Parliamentary Written Questions were published in the O.J. C Series through 1999, then in EUROPARL - Activities>Parliamentary Questions ( written 1994-, oral 1999-). Also try WESTLAW EU-QUESTIONS.
  • Minutes of Parliament sessions and Texts [of Opinions] Adopted
  • Non-binding decisions and resolutions of Council
  • Council Common Positions, 1994-
  • Commission decisions, notices and other communications, such as the opening of antidumping investigations and antitrust procedures, calls for proposals, and the daily Euro rate
  • Judgment portion of new European Court of Justice decisions and lists of new cases
  • Opinions of the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions
  • A list of documents in the OJ C-E Series (electronic-only series) issue for the same day

O.J. C-E Series: Started in July 1999. An electronic-only series containing documents that are not published in the paper edition of the O.J. C Series. The C-E Series is available in EUR-LEX - Official Journal (C-E issues are listed with C issues), and on a CDROM (Circulation KJE908 .O34). The C issue will list all documents contained in the C-E issue for the same day if there is one.

S Series: offers for tenders/bids. The current day's issue is available on the TED Tenders Electronic Daily S Supplement to the Official Journal

Annex to the Official Journal: Debates of Parliament. Ceased publication after the May 1999 session.

 

WHERE TO FIND THE O.J.

Official version 1973 to present-
Official Journal of the European Union (formerly Official Journal of the European Communities, (English edition)
Paper: Compact Shelves (unbound on Reserve) KJE908 .J6
Microfiche through 2005: Media Center Cabinet A

PDF Jan. 1, 1998 to present-
EUR-LEX <europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/en/index.htm> Official Journal. Search by date, language, citation or simple word search. If you already have the number of a regulation, directive or decision, start with the Legislation link instead of O.J. The electronic O.J. is archived on a CD-ROM (Circulation KJE908 .O34).

Pre-1998 legislation/Official Journal in EUR-LEX
>Official Journal>Access by year>other years, or
>Simple Search>by publication reference>Official Journal reference, or
>use another search option such as >Simple Search>keywords, or >Legislation in force

WESTLAW (PDF after 1997)
EU-LEG, 1952-
Find by O.J. citation: oj 1990 L352/1
Search full-text or fields such as DN (document number),
e.g., DN(91/250) [to find Directive 91/250].

EU-OJCSERIES
EU-ACTS (legislative proposals and related documents)
EU-QUESTIONS (Parliamentary Written Questions)

LexisNexis (not PDF)
EURCOM; ECLAW, 1953-
EURCOM;LEGIS, July 1979-
Get a Document: 2000 oj L 114

Journal officiel des Communautés Européennes (French), 1952-76
The French text is the official source for the period before the official English edition began in 1973 with UK accession.
Microfiche: Media Center Cabinet A

1952-72: Official Journal, Special Edition contains English translations of binding acts adopted prior to UK accession. The Official Journal, Special Edition, Second Series contains English translations of non-binding acts and communications adopted prior to UK accession.
Microfiche: Media Center Cabinet A

Some of the pre-1973 legislation may also be found in English in volume C of Encyclopedia of European Community Law (K.R. Simmonds. London: Sweet & Maxwell; Edinburgh: Green; [New York]: Bender [1973-1993]).

Official Journal...Annex: Debates of Parliament.
Paper: Compact Shelves NYUL KE-E5 2J67
Ceased in paper after the May 1999 Session. After July 1999, published in a CD-ROM (Circulation KJE908 .O33). Also try EUROPARL -Plenary Sessions>Debates, 1996-; Index 1984-99.

Finding legislation by number, e.g., Dir. 91/250

  • EUR-LEX - Legislation in force. Search by type of act and number.
  • Volume C, Community Secondary Legislation, of Encyclopedia of European Community Law. The numerical tables in the first volume and the numerical checklists in last volume provide both the O.J. citation and the page number for the full text of the acts reprinted in the main volumes. Also has a subject index in the last volume. Reserve NYUL KE-E4 7E53
  • European Union Law Reporter. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2000-. Bicester, Oxfordshire: CCH International; Chicago: Commerce Clearing House, 1997-1999. Formerly Common Market Reporter, 1962-97. The numerical Finding List of acts in volume 4 provides the O.J. citation. Some acts are reprinted in this set.
    Reserve NYUL KE-E1 C63 C6
  • WESTLAW EU-LEG, 1952- (not PDF)
    E.g., to find Directive 91/250, search title field or DN (document number) field with the act number, e.g., DN(91/250).
  • LexisNexis

Finding legislation by topic if you do not know the O.J. citation or the number of the act. The Official Journal is a chronological publication, not arranged by subject and not cumulated. There are monthly and annual numerical and analytical indexes shelved with the paper and microfiche editions of the O.J, but the methods listed below are easier to use.

  • Read books and articles on your topic and note citations to legislative acts.
  • Directory of Community Legislation in Force
    EUR-LEX - Legislation in force >Directory of Community Legislation in Force. A subject outline listing all legislation in force and related amendments. The texts of legislation that are provided are in html and some PDF. A similar outline for proposed legislation is available in EUR-Lex <europa.eu.int//eur-lex/en/index.html> under Legislation in Preparation.
  • WESTLAW EU-LEG, 1952-.
    Full texts, including some PDFs. Search by keywords using regular WESTLAW search strategy. Or, search in the "Index" field using terms and/or classification numbers from the Directory of Community Legislation in Force (see above). "References" at the end of a legislative text is a list of relevant dates (entry into force, etc.), and citations to preparatory acts (documents from the legislative process), amendments, and cases from the European Court of Justice. "Countries (National Measures)" is a list of citations to (not the text of) any national implementing measures for a directive.
  • European Union Law Reporter. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2000-. Bicester, Oxfordshire: CCH International; Chicago: Commerce Clearing House, 1997-1999. Formerly Common Market Reporter, 1962-97. Use the detailed Topical Index in volume 4 to find commentary on policy, legislation, and case law, and citations to legislation and cases.
    Reserve NYUL KE-E1 C63 C6
  • Volume C, Community Secondary Legislation, of Encyclopedia of European Community Law (K.R. Simmonds. London: Sweet & Maxwell; Edinburgh: Green; [New York]: Bender, [1973-]). Full text of acts. Subject index in the last volume.
    Reserve NYUL KE-E4 7E53
  • Also try the news, background sources and websites listed above.
  • For proposed legislation on a topic, see Legislation in Preparation.

National implementing measures for directives are binding as to the result to be achieved but each Member State chooses the form and method for implementing them in the Member State.

See, in general, Application of Community Law [status tables, etc.]

The following sources may provide citations to (but not the text of)the national implementing measures:

  • WESTLAW EU-LEG, 1952-
    "Countries (National Measures)" following a directive is a list of citations to any national implementing measures.
  • LexisNexis EUROPE;NATPRV, 1989-.
  • EUR-LEX. In the Bibliographic Notice for a directive, click on "Display the National Implementing Measures" for a list of national laws. Note: For now, the citations of national measures do not appear in the new EUR-Lex, only in the original Celex, which is up-to-date only through December 31, 2004. The data is in the process of being constructed on the new EUR-Lex site.
  • Commercial Laws of Europe. London: European Law Center, 1978-.
    Selected texts of recent laws in English translation. Lists recently adopted legislation by topic and by directive number. B1Stacks (unbound on Reserve) KG2 C45 1C66
  • SCAD Plus - Summaries of the Union's Legislation. May include citations to national implementing legislation.

The EU and commercial publishers may also track the progress toward national implementation by Member States in general, or for a particular directive. See, e.g., Butterworths EC Legislation Implementator (London: Butterworths, 1992-) Compact Shelves KJE915 .B88x; and Summary Report from the Commission on the Implementation by Member States of Council Directive 90/219/EEC on the Contained Use of Genetically Modified Micro-Organisms (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2000).

Hints for finding the text of Member State laws
The sources listed above generally will not give you the text of the national implementing law (exceptions: LexisNexis and Westlaw limited coverage of EU countries). If you find citations to relevant national law, check JULIUS <julius.law.nyu.edu> or ask at the Reference Desk to determine if the law library has the laws of the Member State(s) in question. The following sources may also be useful:

European Current Law. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1992-.
Monthly digest of legislation and cases. Cumulated in European Current Law Year Book.
B2 Stacks (unbound on Reserve) KF-E8 9701

Commercial Laws of Europe. London: European Law Center, 1978-.
Selected texts of recent laws in English translation. Lists of recently adopted legislation by topic and by directive number.
B1Stacks (unbound on Reserve) KJC2044.3 .C66

Doing Business in Europe. Bicester, Oxfordshire, England: CCH, 1972. Country-by-country summaries of, and citations to, national law for the EU Member States (except Finland), plus Switzerland. Companion set to European Union Law Reporter.
Reserve KE-E1 C63 D6 D5

Commercial Laws of the World. Ormond Beach, Fla.: Foreign Tax Law Publishers (looseleaf).
Country-by-country English translations of selected business organization laws and related laws.
Reserve K1001.4 .C65x

Tax Laws of the World. Ormond Beach, Fla.: Foreign Tax Law Publishers (looseleaf).
Country-by-country English translations of selected tax laws.
Reserve K4504.15 .T394x

Doing Business in France. By the Law Firm of Simeon Moquet Borde & Associes. New York, N.Y.: M. Bender, 1983- (looseleaf).
Summaries of and citations to selected laws in business, employment, securities, taxation, and other areas.
Reserve KJV2199 .D75x 1983

Business Transactions in Germany. Ed. Bernd Ruster. New York, N.Y.: M. Bender; Munich: C.H. Beck, 1983- (looseleaf).
The Statutory Material volume contains English translations of selected legislation.
Reserve KK2057 .B87 1983

EUI Country Commerce. London: Economist Intelligence Unit, 2000.
Analysis of worldwide market trends and business strategies and assessment and forecast of political, economic and business conditions in almost 200 countries.

Foreign Databases by Jurisdiction
Mirela Roznovschi of the NYU Law Library maintains this selective list of links to guides and full-text databases for some of the world's jurisdictions.

For descriptions of the legal system in a Member State and citations to laws on specific subjects, see:

  • Foreign Law Guide: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World by Thomas H. Reynolds and Arturo A. Flores. Information on the legal system and citations to subject-specific laws of nearly 200 jurisdictions from major nations to crown colonies, semi-independent states and supra-national regional organizations. Also available as a looseleaf service: Foreign Law: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World. Littleton, Colo.: F.B. Rothman, 1989-. Reference K38 .R49 1989
  • Modern Legal Systems Cyclopedia. Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein, 1984-. Reference K583.R313 M63 1984

"Consolidated Legislation" refers to unofficial texts that incorporate amendments and corrections into the original text of a legislative act in a single document so that the the current state of the law can be seen more easily. A consolidated text reflects several texts that were initially published in the Official Journal. Consolidated texts are not official and should be used for informational purposes only. Each consolidated text has a list of all the legal documents taken into account for its construction. The consolidated legislation in EUR-Lex is available in HTML or PDF and is best accessed by starting with the Analytical Structure, which is based upon the Directory of Community Legislation in Force.

 

LEGISLATION IN PREPARATION

  1. COM Documents (proposed legislation)
  2. Finding documents of Council, Parliament, etc.
  3. Reports, Green Papers, White Papers

For a description of the process and players and of the different legislative procedures, see EUR-Lex <europa.eu.int//eur-lex/en/index.html> About EU Law (on the original EUR-Lex site).

Legislation must rest on authority from the Treaties. If you are doing retrospective research on an adopted act, you can usually find the relevant treaty article(s) cited in the final text of the adopted legislation (in the O.J. L Series). The treaty article will require a specific legislative procedure. The type of legislative procedure will dictate whether the Council, Parliament, Committee of the Regions, and Economic and Social Committee will generate documents during the process. At least in recent years, the footnotes to the final text of the adopted legislation will also cite the "preparatory acts," including the COM document (proposal) and other documents from the legislative process. Now, EUR-Lex as well as the public registers of the Commission, the Parliament and the Council offer searchable databases of the preparatory acts.

Commission proposal. Prior to drafting the proposal, the Commission may issue a green paper or a white paper. The text of a Commission legislative proposal, also called a preparatory act, may be amended several times before it leaves the Commission. Legislative proposals are available in the following sources:

COM Documents print legislative proposals with an explanatory memorandum. Green papers, white papers and other communications and reports issued by the Commission may also be printed as COM documents.

Citation examples:
COM (96) 344 final [final version of COM number 344 for 1996].
COM (2003) 659 final

Where to find the COM Documents by number and by topic:

  • Paper, 1980-April 2003
    Compact Shelves (unbound on Reserve) NYUL KE-E7 1D62
  • The law library does not currently receive the COM documents in paper. Instead, use EUR-LEX Preparatory Acts for legislative proposals. Search by COM document number, etc. To find proposals by topic, use the Directory of Commission Proposals EUR-Lex - Legislation in Preparation. This Directory lists proposals under the same subject outline used for the Directory of Legislation in Force so you can use these directories to gather adopted and proposed legislation on the same topic.
  • See also Reports, Green Papers, White Papers below.
  • Microfiche, 1974-87, Room B5 Cabinets B and C
  • From July 1999, but only through those COM documents dated 2002, the O.J. C-E Series (electronic only) published the text of legislative proposals (with the explanatory memoranda since October 2002).
  • Until June 1999, most legislative proposals were published in the O.J. C Series in paper, but without the explanatory memorandum that is included with the COM document version.
  • Monthly and annual cdroms of the COM documents are expected to be issued.
  • WESTLAW EU-ACTS provides full-text searchable texts.
  • LexisNexis EURCOM;PREP has searchable abstracts.
  • Documents Catalog (ceased in 2000) is a subject listing covering the COM documents, reports of Parliament and opinions of the Economic and Social Council. The annual cumulation of this catalog also has a keyword index and numerical index.
    Compact Shelves (unbound on Reserve) NYUL KE-E9 1C65 D52
  • To get started on an unfamiliar topic, see EU Institutions and News, background sources and websites.

Finding documents of Council, Parliament, etc.
See EU Institutions. Also use EU, Pre-Lex and OEIL for systematic tracking of specific legislative proposals and links to the full text of documents generated by the Council, Parliament, etc. during the legislative process.

Reports, Green Papers, White Papers

  • Green papers - A policy document to stimulate public discussion.
  • White papers - A detailed policy document for discussion and political decision.
  • EUR-LEX - Documents of Public Interest (Commission white papers, green papers, reports and other communications)
  • Websites of the relevant EU institutions
  • COM Documents
  • AEI Archive of European Integration <//aei.pitt.edu> University of Pittsburgh Library System. Archive of (1) independently produced research materials (working papers, policy papers, conference papers, articles, etc.) and (2) key official EU documents that record the development of EU policy, such as Green and White papers and COM documents, that are not readily available elsewhere on the internet.
  • Search for others in ECLAS - the catalog of the European Commission Libraries.

 

COMPETITION AND MERGERS

The O.J. C Series prints limited merger-related documents such as the notice of the opening of an investigation and the notice of the Commission non-opposition to a merger. Other relevant sources are:

 

EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

Statute of the Court, rules of procedure, etc. Texts and documents
<curia.eu.int/en/instit/txtdocfr/index.htm>

Citation of judgments C-18/95, Terhoeve v. Inspecteur, [1999] E.C.R. I-348. This case is published in the 1999 Reports of Cases Before the Court, Section I, at p. 348.

Reports of Cases Before the Court, 1956-1989 (E.C.R.)
continued by:
Reports of Cases Before the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance, 1990- (E.C.R.)
Section I contains Court of Justice cases, and Section II, the Court of First Instance. Includes opinions of Advocates-General, a chronological list of cases for the year, and a list of the cases by broad subjects.
Compact Shelves (unbound on Reserve) NYUL KE-E6 5C67 R3a

Staff Cases. European Court Reports. Reports of European Community Staff Cases, 1994-. Looseleaf. Compact Shelves KJE924.5 .E97x (Latest year on Reserve)

Finding cases by name or topic--other reporters
The annual index to the official E.C.R. contains chronological and numerical lists of the cases, case summaries in an analytical outline, a table of EC legislation referenced in the cases, and a subject index, but the index is late to be published. If you know the name or topic of a case, but not the E.C.R. citation, try one of the following sources instead. Sources listed below in bold also contain the full text of the judgments. The online versions may be full-text searchable.

Index A-Z: Numerical and Alphabetical Index of Cases Before the Court of Justice of the European Communities Since 1953. Luxembourg: The Service. Reserve KJE924.2 .C68

EUR-Lex <europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/index.html> Case-law has links to CURIA (see below), competition matters, the Court of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and the European Court of Human Rights.

CURIA

  • >News>Proceedings
  • >News>Press releases
  • >Case Law has the cases back to the beginning of the Court, but texts before mid-1997 are not full-text searchable.
    >Search unofficial texts of cases since 17 June 1997 (released ahead of the print versions) by case number, name, date, words, and broad subjects.
    >Numerical access. Use this to find pre-1997 cases.
    >Digest of Community Law summaries of judgments and orders arranged according to a subject matter classification
    >Alphabetical index of the subject matter of the judgments >Annotations of the judgments, a bibliography of scholarly writings on the case law
  • >European Union Law in Europe>National and international case law, a summary of major cases from national courts and tribunals taken from Annual Report on Monitoring the Application of Community Law.

WESTLAW EU-CS, full text 1954-
find 1987 E.C.R. 3203 (eu)
find eu: case 281/85
search par(germany & migration) & da(1987)

LexisNexis
EURCOM;ECJ, full text 1954- (from CELEX)
EUROPE;ECCASE (from non-EU reporters)

European Community Cases, 1989-. Prints selected ECJ cases and Commission decisions. Use the topical index and case name index in volume 4. Reserve NYUL KE-E1 C63 C6 C2
Formerly Common Market Reporter, NYUL KE-E1 C63 C6

Common Market Law Reports and C.M.L.R. Antitrust Reports. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1962-. Prints selected cases.
Compact Shelves (unbound on Reserve) NYUL KE-E6 5C65
Also available in WESTLAW CML-RPTS

Official Journal C Series periodically publishes an issue containing the operative portion of new judgments and announcement of new cases registered with the Court.

Proceedings of the Court.... Newsletter containing notices of cases filed and summaries of new judgments.
Compact Shelves (unbound on Reserve) KJE924.3 .P76

European Current Law. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1992-.
Monthly digest of legislation and cases. Cumulated in European Current Law Year Book.
B2 Stacks (unbound on Reserve) KF-E8 9701

Grands Arrets de la Cour de Justice des Communautés Européennes. 6e ed. Boulouis, Jean. [Paris]: Dalloz, 1994-. Excerpts from major judgments arranged under broad topics.
Reserve KJE924.3 .B68 1994

Digest of Case-law Relating to the European Communities. Series A. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European
Communities, 1982-1987.
Compact Shelves NYUL KE-E6 7D41

European Law Digest. London: Common Law Reports, Ltd. Vols 1-16 (1973-1988).
Compact Shelves NYUL KE-E4 1E76

Gazetteer of European Law: Case Search, European Community Law, 1953-1983. By Neville March Hunnings. London: European Law Centre, 1983. Volume 2 has a an alphabetical and a chronological list of the cases, plus a simple subject index. These access tools refer back to volume 1 for citations to the various sources where the cases have been published, including non-English publications.
Compact Shelves NYUL KE-E6 7H86 G2

The Relationship between European Community Law and National
Law: The Cases. Andrew Oppenheimer. Cambridge, England: Grotius Publications, Cambridge University Press, 1994. A collection of selected E.C.J. and national cases, with a digest and an index.
Reserve KJE969 .R45x 1994

Publications about the work of the Court

[Report of Proceedings (year):] Synopsis of the Work of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance of the European Communities. Annual.
Compact Shelves (unbound on Reserve) KE-E6 1S9

Press Releases of the Court

Notes: References des notes de doctrine aux arrets de la Cour de Justice et du Tribunal de Premiere Instance des Communautes Europeennes. Luxembourg: Office des Publications Officielles des Communautes Europeennes.
Compact Shelves KJE924 .N673x

Current Trends and Developments in the Case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities: Annual Review.
Maastricht, The Netherlands: European Institute of Public Administration, 1994-. (on order)

Anderson, David W. K. References to the European Court. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1995. [2002 edition on order]

 

Compiled by Jeanne Rehberg, New York University School of Law Library.

This page was updated June 27, 2012